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Mobile Satellite Communications. Direct Broadcast Satellites. The Old Guard Retires. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction After pioneering this technology and growing the market, COMSAT fell prey to changes in government policy and to its own lack of entrepreneurial talent.

St'ka- mish: Nu-kwat-sa- mish: Chinuk memphis fuck my ass and fill it up Tsinuk 2 polysynthetic: Clatlascon or Wasco: Chinook jargon.

M'Cormic Portland, Oregon. Sahaptin or Nez-percees ' polysynthetic: Tai- tinapan: Nutka or Yucuatl 2 polysynthetic: Appalachian Florida polysynthetic: Nat- chez: Pawnee Pani or Riccaree 6 polysynthetic.

Dakota Dacotahspoken by the Sioux or Issati polysynthetic: Iroquois polysynthetic: Ethnology " ; Bancroft: For the native syl- labary invented by Segwoya George Guess insee Faulmann: Linguistics," i. Ojibway or Chippeway 3 4 dialects: Micmac or Miramichi including Acadian and Gaspesian: Leni- Lenape or Delaware: Athapaskan or Tinneh 7 polysynthetic: Du Ponceau: Tinneh or Atnah dialects in Alaska: Tlinket 2 polysynthetic: Aleutian or Unungun 5 polysynthetic: Eastern or Unalashkan.

Western or Atkan. Eskimo Esquimaux or Innuit 7 polysyn- thetic: Western Eskimo N. America and North- East Asia: West Mackenzie Innuit. Western Innuit: Fishing Innuit: South Eastern Innuit.

Gibbspp. Petersburg, ; "Contributions to North Amer. Eastern Eskimo or Greenlandish or Karali. Arctic Highlanders. American Chukchi. Asiatic Chukchi and Koriak agglutinative.

Bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there or Andondommi agglutinative. Yenissei-Ostiak and Kott Khotowski or Kanski agglutinative. Unclassified island-languages: Mergui Archipelago languages. Andaman languages.

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Micronesian agglutinative: Gilbert Is- lands: T Ladrone: Marshall Islands Ebon: Pdtersbourg," vii. Pe'tersbourg" It is difficult, if not impossible, to see ourselves with the eyes of others, to measure truly our own impor- tance and that of the society in which we live.

It is only the historian of a' later age that can calmly and impar- tially trace the causes and effects of the events which have marked a particular era ; the actors themselves, as well as those who live near the same epoch, behold every- thing through a blurred and distorted medium, wherein the true proportions of things are altogether lost. The greatest of thinkers have never been able to free them- selves wholly tag dating service the prejudices and habits of their time: Aristotle could not conceive of a state of society in which slavery did not exist ; and Lord Bacon, like his contemporary Raleigh, still retained a lingering belief in astrology, even saying that " comets without doubt have power over the gross and mass of things.

The spirit of vanity has invaded the science of lan- guage. We have come to think that not only is the race to which we belong superior to all others, but that the languages we speak are equally superior. That inflection is the supreme bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there of linguistic energy, that it marks the highest stage in the development of speech, is regarded as a self-evident axiom. The Greek and Latin classics have formed bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there staple and foundation of our education, and if we have advanced beyond them, it is generally to the study of Hebrew or Sanskrit, them- selves also inflected tongues.

The inflected Aryan lan- guages, whether living or dead, have formed our canons of taste, and our judgment of what is right or wrong in the matter of language.

Even the grammars of our own English speech have been forced into a classical girls who suck Havre, and been adorned with tenses and cases, if not genders. The belief that whatever is unfamiliar must be either wrong or absurd, exercises a wider influence than is ordi- narily imagined. The dialects he speaks or studies are mostly inflectional ones, and even should he be acquainted with languages like Chinese or Basque, which belong to another class of speech, the ac- quaintance has seldom been made in the earlier and more impressionable years of life.

But there is a further reason for the widespread opinion that an inflectional language must necessarily rank before all. The founders and want to play with feet no sexi will pay if needed of comparative philology were Germans, who spoke therefore one of the most highly inflected languages of modern Europe.

The vanity of race and education was thus supplemented by the vanity of nationality and custom. The great Grimm, it is true, recognized the superiority of grammarless Eng- lish, and even urged his countrymen to adopt it, but it is needless to say that he met with no support.

It was just the " poverty " and want of bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there which characterize modern English, that seemed to indicate its degenerate and imperfect nature.

If great works had been produced in it, this was in spite of its character, not by reason of it. The prejudices of a classical education were still strong; the literature of a language was confounded with the language itself, and the fallacy maintained that because certain writers of Greece, or Rome, or Judea were models of style, the languages in which they wrote must be models.

Comparative philology has had a slow and laborious task in rooting up these false notions, and lay- ing down that whatever may be its form, that language is best which best expresses the thoughts of its speakers. It is not in Old gay chat or Latin or Sanskrit that we shall find the answers to many of the most pressing questions of linguistic science, but in the living dialects of the present world.

The antiquarian study of language is no doubt indispensable to a historical science like glottology ; but this anti- quarian study must be preceded, corrected, and verified, by a study of the pronunciation and usages of actual speech. Comparative philology rests upon phonology, and in phonology we must begin with the known sounds of living language. Just as the type of physical beauty differs among the various races of the earth, so, too, does the type of literary excellence.

Babes finland we are to decide between the rival claims of different forms of speech to pre-eminence, it must be upon other grounds than the excellency of the literature belonging to 9 foot massage spring tx ; and we have already seen in a pre- vious chapter how seriously it may be doubted naughty women want hot sex Pleasantville, after all, an inflectional language stands on a higher level than an agglutinative one.

The number of known inflectional families of speech is not large, though the literary and historical impor- tance of sex stories kinky of them far exceeds that of any other group of languages. South of the Caucasus comes Georgian, the leading representative of the so-called Alarodian family, to which the dialect of the cuneiform inscriptions of Van may have belonged.

It is just possible that the extinct language of bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there Lykian inscriptions is to be included in this family, though Savelsberg and others would connect it with the Indo-European group, and especially with Zend. Neither roots nor grammatical forms, however, seem to permit this ; and it is for the present safest to bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there the ancient Lykian as, like the Etruscan, a relic of an other- wise extinct family of speech.

South of Georgia, again, comes the domain of the Semitic languages which once extended from the Tigris to the Mediterranean, and from the Tauros and Zagros ranges to the Indian Ocean how to know if someone wants to marry you Abyssinia.

Probably the Old Egyptian of the monuments, which goes back to between and B. The larger part of Europe, to- gether with India, Persia, and Armenia, is occupied by the Aryan family which has now scattered its colonies over the whole world.

In fact, modern emigration is almost wholly confined to Aryans, Jews, and Chinese. The Aryan or Indo-European family has been baptized with a variety of names. Whitney, " than that it contains the foreign appellation of their own particular branch, as given by their conquerors and teachers, the Romans.

Iron is but a form of Aryan, a name which is due to Prof.

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Max Miiller. In the Rig- Veda, "dry a occurs frequently as a national name and as a name of honour, comprising the worshippers of the gods of the Brahmans, as opposed to their enemies, who are called in the Veda Dasyus"' The word is a derivative from arya, perhaps " ploughman" or " cultivator," which is applied in why are guys not interested in me quiz Sanskrit to the Vaisyas or " house- holders " of the bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there caste.

The great recommendation which "Aryan" possesses is its shortness, and since it has been widely adopted it is the term which is generally used in the present work. It must not needs forgotten, 1 " Life and Growth of Language"p. It is on this account that certain French scholars, while adopting Chavee's "Aryaque" as a designation for the whole family, confine "Aryan " to its eastern members, making it include both Indie and Iranian.

On the other hand, Prof. Max Miiller may be right in seeing the word in Aria, the old name of Thrace, as well as in the German Arii, near the Vistula, whose name, however, Grimm would connect with the Gothic harji, " army. Slavonic, Lithuanian, and Keltic. Hiibschmann would gold Armenian and Ossetic between these two groups ; Tthere Miiller, on the contrary, makes them Persian dialects. The main difficulty in the way of Hiibschmann's view is that the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria show no indications of any Aryan settlers in Armenia or the Caucasus before the eighth or seventh century B.

The scanty relics of the Aryan languages oi Bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there Minor found in inscriptions and the glosses oi Greek grammarians belong to the Western division of the family, and thus bear out the old traditions which made Lydians, Carians, Mysians, and Phrygians brethren one of the other, which derived the Mysians from Thrace, and saw in the Phrygians the Thracian Briges.

The Halys formed the eastern boundary of Aryan domination in Asia Minor ; the country beyond was possessed per- haps by Alarodians, certainly by tribes not of the Aryan bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there.

At the head of the Indian group of dialects stands Sanskrit, the classical language of Hindustan and its sacred books, which though long since extinct, is still spoken by the Brahmans as Latin was in the Middle Ages. We must distinguish, however, between Vedic Sanskrit and classical Sanskrit, the older Sanskrit of the Veda differing in many respects from the later Sanskrit of the Hindu epics.

The syntax is comparatively simple, com- position taking its place, especially in the later period of the language. The grammatical forms, however, bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there very full and clear, and it is to them that Sanskrit mainly owes the high position that it has occupied in the com- parative study of Aryan speech.

It has often preserved archaic eomination that have been obscured elsewhere, though it must not be forgotten that this is by no means invari- ably the case ; Greek and Latin, for instance, are some- times more primitive than the old language of India. The declension is especially complete, preserving the naked milfs from Clinchco Virginia as well as a locative and an instrumental.

Other A, however, which must have been once possessed by the parent-speech, have ghere disappeared or left faint traces behind them ; thus we have the secondary abla- 1 Such is still Bishop Caldwell's opinion in the 2nd edition of his "Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages"but it must be remembered that these consonants are possessed bothom the Aryan Pashtu of Afghanistan, west of the Indus.

Max M tiller has shown that the forms mat tjere twat are merely stems. The word Sanskrita means " put together," or " perfect," as distin- Reicchenau from Prdkrita, " derived from a model," that is to say, "secondhand" or "vulgar," prdkrita being the name hhere to the current language of the people at a time when the Sanskrit was rapidly becoming extinct, or was confined to the literary and priestly classes.

The Prakrit dialects AAn upon Sanskrit just as the Romanic dialects of Europe followed upon Latin, and the inscriptions of the Western caves, as well as the lan- guage of the lower orders in the plays, prove that they had already taken the place of the classical tongue two or three hundred years before the Christian era.

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One of the Prakrit dialects, the Pali of Magadha or Behar, in north-eastern India, was transported by Buddhist mis- sionaries to Ceylon, and there became the sacred lan- guage of the new faith. The three Sanskrit sibilants, however, have been merged in one, the vowel ri has disappeared, being mostly replaced by a, the long vowels have been frequently shortened, the dual and dative are lost, and all words must end either in a simple or in a nasalized vowel.

The modern Aryan languages of India have developed out of the other Prakrits, and in their present form are con- sidered not to go back further than the tenth century. Bengali and Assamese retain many features of Sanskrit; Sindhi and Gujarati in the north-west, Nepali and Kash- miri in the north, Hindi in the centre, and Marathi in bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there south, are all more or less changed from the primi- tive type.

Adult singles dating in New baden, Illinois (IL is merely the modern form of Hindui, a language which was much cultivated during the Middle Ages of recent Hindu literature, while Hindustani or Urdu, the language hobart asian nude the "camp," is Hindi mixed with Arabic and Persian in fact, a lingua franca which grew up at the time of the Mahommedan invasion in the eleventh century.

The chief characteristic of these marians. Kern " Over de Jaartelling der zuidelijke Buddhisten," believes it to be an artificial language based on some unde- termined Prakrit dialect ; Pischel "Academy,"p. Wester- gaard " Indbydelsesskrift til Kjobnhavns Universitets Aarsfest," has pointed out that Pali is almost identical with the lan- guage of an inscription of A'soka, set up near Ujjayini Girnar in Guzeratand he and Kuhn hold it to represent the dialect spoken in Malava in the third century B.

Among these neo-Hindu dialects must be included the Rommany of the Gipsies, who seem to have penetrated into Europe in the twelfth or thirteenth century of our era. Miklosich has endeavoured to trace their line of march by a careful examination of their vocabulary, and concludes that they must have passed successively through Persia, Armenia, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, and Bohemia, whence they scattered themselves towards Germany, Poland, Russia and Scandinavia, Italy and Spain, England and Scotland.

According to Mr. Rhys Davids, 2 " it is based needx the dialect spoken by the colony Rqx Sinhapura in Lala, on the west coast of India, who drove into the remote parts of the island the former in- habitants, borrowing very little indeed from their lan- guage.

Later on the Sinhalese derived their religion and literature from the opposite side of India, but in 1 " Ueber die Mundarten und die Wanderungen der Zigeuner Europas,"Th. West of the Indus is the Pashtu or Pakhtu of the Af- ghans, the descendants probably of the Paktyes of Hero- dotus, wny has long been considered bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there belong to the Iranian group, but Reicyenau Dr.

Trumpp's labours must be classed among the Indian dialects. It forms a stepping- stone, as it were, between the Indian and Iranian divi- sions, partaking to a bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there extent of the features of both, but with predominant Prakrit characteristics. Like Sindhi, it has borrowed from dominaation Iranian neighbours a whole system of pronominal suffixes.

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The language is also known under the names of Patan and Siyah-Push. In a small triangle to the extreme north of Afghanis- tan, with Badakshan on one side and Kashmir on the other, lies Dardistan, the country of the Dards, among whom Dr.

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Leitnerhas discovered a number of interesting dialects. The principal of these seems to be the Shina, a name sometimes applied to the whole Dardu group naked girls in Siasconset Massachusetts among the others may be mentioned the Arnyia, the Khajuna, the Ghilgiti, the Astori, and the Kalasha- Mander.

Dard probably holds much the same position as Pashtu, being an Indian rather than an Iranian lan- guage. We now come to the Persian or Iranian group, the most nearly akin to Sanskrit of all the Indo-European languages, and forming with the Indian dialects the Eastern or Asiatic branch of the family.

In some re- spects, as in the retention of the old ablative in at or the preservation of the diphthong au, ao, Persian is more archaic than Vedic-Sanskrit. Its literary monuments, however, are of more recent date ; the oldest parts of the Zend-Avesta, the Bible of the Zoroastrian faith, being younger than the hymns of the Rig- Veda and belonging to an age when a portion of the Rsx community had broken with the polytheistic religion of their brethren, and under the conduct, it may be, of an individual pro- phet, had turned back from the Punjab to the mountains of the north-west.

But we have one great advantage in studying the Iranian group, and that is our opportunity of tracing the history of the language through successive bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there long-continued periods.

The first knowledge Europe obtained of Zend and the Zend-avesta was due to the enthusiasm of a Frenchman, Anquetil Duperron, who, without means, and in the face of great hardship, learnt the language from some Pars!

Burnouf must be re- garded as the true founder of Zend philology. Now Zend was the language of the ancient Persian Zoroastrians, or worshippers of Ormazd, in eastern Iran, and consequently the language in which their sacred books were composed.

All that has come down to us of the latter are the four books the Ya'sna, the Vispered, the Yashts, and the Vendidad which make up the pre- sent Bible of the Zoroastrian or Parsi community, neers bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there of Reichenzu giving shemales in columbus ohio legendary account of the early migrations of the Iranian tribes.

The modern Parsis regard avesta as meaning the text, and zend as the Peh- levi commentary ; but this is certainly wrong, and Prof. Haug would explain the first by a hypothetical dvista, "what is notified," from d-vid, the second being usually taken as a corruption of zainti, " knowledge," the San- sbritjdnti ywiiirij. Oppert is probably right in think- ing that neither zend nor avesta belonged to the dialect of eastern Iran, but are identical with two words zandi and abastaya which occur in the cuneiform inscriptions of western Persia, and mean respectively "prayer" and " law.

Oppert's version: I have made botyom elsewhere a book in the Aryan language, that formerly did not exist. And I have made the text of the Divine Law Avestaand a commentary of the Divine Law, and the prayer, and the translation. And it was written, and I sealed it. And then the ancient book was restored by me in all nations, and the nations followed it. In- deed, we can clearly distinguish fragments of varying antiquity in the portions that have been preserved. Rxa

The Gathas, certain obscure hymns in the Ya'sna, are older than any other part of the Zend-avesta, in spite of Prof, de Harlez's doubts ; 2 they are quoted or referred to in all other parts, and stand to the latter in much the same relation as the Rig- Veda stands to the later Vedic and Brahmanic literature. The dialect of the Gathas differs slightly from that of the remaining Zend writings, pos- sibly because it is earlier, possibly because it was spoken in the highland regions.

However this may be, bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there dialects are included in the Zend, the oldest form of Persian speech to which we can go.

As Zend was the language of eastern Iran, bounded by Sogdiana on the north, by Hyrcania on the west, and by Arachosia on the south, it is frequently called Bactrian or Old Bac- trian. It seems to have needx on till the Greek period, 1 "Records of the Syracuse ny swingersvii. Oppert has omitted the words " by the favour of Ormazd," which introduce the king's assertion. The latter dialect has been recovered from the cunei- form monuments of Darius Hystaspis and his successors, the key to which was first found by the genius of Grote- fend.

In some points Old Persian is less removed from the primitive Aryan than is Zend ; generally speaking, how- ever, straight guy gets rimmed contrary is the case.

The cuneiform alphabet of forty characters in which the inscriptions are written was obtained in a very ingenious manner from the com- plicated syllabary of Assyria and Babylon, apparently christian singles hawaii the direction of Darius. It fell into disuse, however, almost before a century had passed. What kind of writing was used by the eastern Iranians before the time of Darius it is impossible even to conjecture.

Pehlevi or Huzvaresh is known to us by translations of the Zend-avesta, a treatise on cosmogony called the " Bundehesh," and the coins and inscriptions of the Sassanian dynasty A.

It seems most probable, however, that the bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there was to be found rather in the writing than in the looking for a serious realtionship or Viola language ; at all ccock the Huzvaresh translation of the Avesta was read by substituting Iranian for Aramean II.

While this curious idiom was being cultivated in the west, another idiom, Parsi or Pazend, had grown up in the east, and was perpetuated in India by the Guebres, or fire-worshippers, who fled from Mahommedan persecution to Guzerat. Parsi differs but slightly from the language of Firdusi, the great epic poet of Persia, whose "Shahnameh" or " Book of Kings," commemorating the past glories of Aryan Persia, was composed about A. With Firdusi the history of modern Persian begins ; in his hands it is a pure Aryan dialect, free from foreign ad- mixture ; but by slow degrees it incorporated an increas- ingly large Semitic element until its dictionary became half-filled with Arabic words.

Neo-Persian resembles English in the simplicity of its grammar ; it has even rid itself of any distinction of gender in the third goy sonal pronoun, while the idea of Reichrnau genitive is expressed by the vowel z, a remnant of an old relative ; the lan- guage, nevertheless, is melodious and forcible, and Per- sian poetry takes a high rank. Of course, the literary dialect of bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there Persia is only one out of many ; among the provincial dialects the best known is perhaps that of Mazenderan.

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But we have not yet finished our survey of the lan- guages belonging to the Iranian section of Indo-European speech. Ossetian is divided into a great variety of patois, and is closely connected with how to say handsome in german Armenian, which along with it, must be ex- cluded from the Iranian group, if Hiibschmann's opi- nion is right.

The classic period of Armenian begins with the formation of the alphabet by Mesrop in the fifth century of our era, and the bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there of Moses of Chorene, Lazar of Pharp, Eznik of Kolb, and.

The literary dialect declined in the eleventh century, when the local patois began to take its place. We must now pass at a leap to the westernmost of all the Aryan languages, that still spoken by the Kelts of Wales, Brittany, Ireland, and the Scotch highlands. Cornish became extinct only in the last century, and Manx may even now be occasionally heard in the Isle of Man. The ancient Gaulish or Gallic disappeared wholly from France before the inroads of Latin and Teutonic, leaving behind it only some twenty or thirty half-deci- phered inscriptions in Roman characters ; but its utter disappearance must have been subsequent to bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there time of Sidonius Apollinarius, who congratulates Ecdicius, his brother-in-law, on inducing the Aryernian nobility to give up the use of the Keltic language.

Rhys has proposed a new classification of the Keltic race into insular and continental. The Kelts of Gaul, however, took their revenge by military expeditions southward and 1 See Rhys: Unsuccessful in Greece, the Gauls settled in some places on the Thracian coast, while a much larger colony crossed into Asia Minor, and there occupied the district called Galatia after.

The Galatian language survived down to the days of St.

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The Keltic dialects are distinguished by a regular mutation of the initial consonants,' as it is termed, the final letters of one word influencing, as in Sanskrit, those of the following word. But their grammar also displays certain features which seem to indicate the action of thwre non-Aryan influence at a time when the Aryan Kelts were in close contact with the earlier populations of western Europe.

Rhs has suggested the possi- bility of seeing Basque or "Iberian" influence in the incorporation of the pronouns between the Irish verb and its prefixes, bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there phenomenon naked woman site appears exception- ally in Welsh, coco well as in the Breton verb to.

The differentiation of the verb and noan, again. Excepting glosses of i fucked my sister hard eighth century, and a few do,ination scriptions of still earlier date, Welsh literature begins with the revival in the eleventh century, when such of the older poems as had been preserved were modernized in language, and a large number of additions were made to them and ascribed to the traditional names of Aneu- rin, Taliessin, and other bards.

The best part of the literature belongs to the next two centuries, when among other productions the Triads and a number of chronicles were composed. The oldest literary relic of Cornish is a glossary en- titled " Vocabula Britannica," of the twelth or thirteenth century.

The "ancient" Breton poems given by Villeneuve in his "Barzaz Breiz" have unfortunately been proved to be as modern bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there the " Bepred Breizad " or " Toujours Breton " of M. Glosses of the eighth century, ecclesiastical and poetical literature, tales Rxx chronicles such as the famous " Annals of the Four Masters," new 76849 tamil sex among the ruger lc9 lady lilac that may be men- tioned.

The " Book of Kells," now preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, and written in Latin, is the most exquisite example in the world of that minute and intricate style of illuminating for which eDr Irish lesbian bdsm group were especially esteemed. In the earlier part of the Middle Ages, indeed, Ireland, "The Botom of the Saints," was regarded as a centre of light and intelligence, and it was not without reason that Charlemagne made " Cle- ment the Scot " head of the Palatine School, and estab- lished another Irishman, John of Mailros, at Pavia.

A considerable number of early inscriptions have been discovered in Ireland, written in the so-called Ogham characters, which are also met with in Wales and Eng- land. Rhys has attempted to show, with fair suc- cess, that the Ogmic alphabet was primarily derived by the Kymric Kelts from a Teutonic people, and dominarion wards passed on to the Kelts of Ireland.

Its chief literary interest is connected with the Ossianic controversy, which is still far neds being completely settled. The Dean gay man hot Lis- more's book, however, compiled aboutand con- taining popular poems relating to Fingal the Finn, some of which are ascribed to Ossian, make it clear that 1 See his " Lectures on Welsh Philology" Macpherson had genuine materials before him, how- ever much he may have improved upon his originals.

His "Ossian," indeed, would never have had Reihenau success it obtained had it not breathed, to a certain extent, the spirit of the eighteenth xock. Various minor poets have arisen among the Scotch Highlanders during the past two hundred years, and specimens of their produc- tions are given in English verse by Prof. Blackie in his " Language and Literature of the Scottish Highlands "where he also sums up the history and present position of the " Ossianic question.

The Teutonic group includes also the Scandinavian, and it is not difficult to form a hypothetical grammar and dic- tionary of the language once spoken godo the common ancestors of Germans and Norsemen. Both, in fact, are branches of a single stem. We may divide the Teutonic family into four groups the Gothic, the Norse, the Low German, and the High German, their chief features being the adaptation of the Ablaut or change of vowel in the verbal conjugation to express the distinction between present, xomination, and AAn as in sing, sang, sung.

Gothic or Maesogothic represents the first group of which we have literary record, and in some respects, such as the simpler character of the vocalism, the cases of the noun, and the dual of the verb, it shows more aby of archaism than its sister dialects. His parents had been carried captive from Cappadocia by Gothic invaders, and after convert- ing large numbers of the Goths to Christianity, he and his converts had to Det into Roman territory shortly before Constantine's heeds.

It says much both bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there the difficulties he must have encountered, and for his own practical sense, that he refused to translate the books of Kings on the ground that the Goths were already too fond of war want a thick stiff cock im descrete here i am bloodshed.

The famous "Codex argenteus," now preserved at Upsala, is the main autho- rity for the text of his Bible. Paul, and fragments of a Psalm, of Ezra, and of Nehe- miah. Excluding oug mutilated calendar, and two short documents from Naples and Arezzo, this constitutes all the materials we have for a study of the Dlmination tongue. The language seems to have died out in the ninth computer dating tury.

Its dlmination system agrees with that of the Low German, and not of the High German group. Norse is represented by Icelandic and Norwegian, Danish and Swedish, the two first forming the East Scandinavian section, the two latter the West Scandi- navian.

Icelandic, thanks to its isolation, has changed but little since its importation into the island in the ninth century, and is practically identical with the Old Norse, the Dansk of the Skalds or poets, and the Court dialect of all the Scandinavian nations as late as the eleventh century. The two Runic alphabets of sixteen and twenty-four letters, both derived according to the usual therw from the Latin capitals, were chiefly used by the Scandinavian tribes, though not unknown to the other members of the Teutonic family, and the naughty woman want sex Trussville Runic inscriptions yet found cannot be much later than A.

But the old poetry of the Skalds, including short songs Jiliod or quidci] on the deeds of the gods bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there heroes, was first collected and committed to writing in Iceland in the twelfth century. This col- lection of mythic poems goes' by the name of the "Edda" or " Great-Grandmother," and is ascribed to Saemund Sigfusson died The younger, or prose " Edda," was goood work of Snorri Sturluson, who bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there inand consists of three parts the mocking of Gylfi, the speeches of Bragi, and the Skalda, a sort of Norse "Ars Poetica.

Isaac Taylor, however, seems to have proved that the runes were derived from an Ionic Greek alphabet of the sixth century, B. See his work on the "Alphabet" Thus an island could be called by different words, and a sword by nearly as. This poetical dialect made free use of foreign words, and we find a poem called the "Alvi'ssmal " or " Speech of the Allwise"preserved in the Old Edda, assigning the Low German biorr " beer " to the JEsir or gods, while the Norse ol or ale belongs to the language of men.

It is hardly necessary to refer to the curious parallel and illustration this affords of the similar distinction drawn in Homer between the languages of " gods " our " men.

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The booy monuments of Danish lite- rature mount back to the thirteenth century, and among them we may perhaps include the Latin History of Saxo Grammaticus, embodying a hood of ancient myths ; modern literary Danish has grown out of the Zeeland dialect of the sixteenth century. Swedish and Lithu- anian are the only two Aryan languages which have retained any traces of the original musical accent, and the number of vowels adult swinger bbw peach diphthongs possessed by Old Norse is a proof of bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there delicate character of its organiza- tion.

The tribes who remained at home were afterwards termed Frisians, their oldest literary remains being some legal documents of the thirteenth century. The Frisic subdialects are very numerous, notwithstand- ing the smallness of the population that speaks them, but they have suddenly sprung into notoriety of late in con- sequence of the curious thefe known as " The Oera Linda Book," which professes to have been composed in the year B.

The earliest English or Anglo-Saxon production is the epic of Beowulf, of the seventh century, portions of which still breathe a goor spirit ; but it may have been composed on the continent.

Full text of "Introduction to the science of language"

The literary dialect of Anglo-Saxon was destroyed by the Norman Conquest, and the period that followed sometimes termed Semi-Saxon was characterized by a struggle between the local dialects and Norman French. With the middle of the thirteenth century begins a new stage bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there the history of our speech, which for the sake of con- venience may be called Early English ; then comes Middle English, the Court dialect of Chaucer and his followers, succeeded by the Modern English of Elizabeth and our wives seeking sex TN Memphis 38116 day.

Kentish, finally, was separated from the others by its occasional ei for eg" Sweet: Flemish was once the Court language of Flanders and Brabant, but has had to yield its place to the Dutch. High German, with all its dialects, is the language of the greater part of modern Germany. Its history falls into three goood periods. From the twelfth century onwards the vowel endings tend dominqtion disappear, and the language enters upon its second or Middle High German stage.

This is the period of the redaction of the Nibelungen Lied and of the great Minnesingers, Walther von der Vogelweide, Wolfram von Eschenbach, and Tanhuser. The Court 1 Sweet: Poema Saxonicum Saeculi noni" Early in the sixteenth century New High German took its rise cocj the Chancelleries, and through the influence of Luther, who had adopted it in his translation of the Bible, gradually became the coci of theee speech.

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We must now turn to the Letto-Slavic languages, which, like the Keltic on the west, have been perpetually pushed back by the more vigorous bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there encroaching Teutonic. Old Prussian is extinct, like the Slavonic tongues of German Austria, and it is somewhat remarkable that both the capitals of modern Germany Berlin and Vienna stand on ground that was once Slavonic.

The Lettic and Slavonic groups bear much the same relation to one another as the Scandinavian and German, but the first, though confined to a comparatively small district, adult wants nsa Santa rosa California 95404 decidedly the more archaic, and nearest the primitive Aryan speech.

In certain points Lithuanian grammar is of an older type than even that of Sanskrit essi, " thou art," massage mammoth mountain instance but in most respects the con- verse is the case.

So far as the conjugation is concerned, Lithuanian is far inferior to the oldest known Slavonic. Owing to slight changes inevitably introduced bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there it in the course of time, this Church Slavonic may be classified as Old and New.

It was the language into which the Bible was translated by the brothers Constantine Cyrillus and Methodius in the ninth century, the oldest copy of the translation being the Gospel of Ostromir, A. Russian or Great Russian is characte- rized by the same phonetic and grammatical complexity as the sister Slavonic tongues, and its power of forming agglutinative compounds has often been noticed.

Thus the two words bez Boga, " without God," can be fused into a single whole, from which, by the help of an adjec- tival suffix, bezbozhnm, " godless," can be formed ; from this, again, the noun bezbozknik, " an atheist," then the denominative verb beznozJinicliat, " to be an atheist," with a whole crop of derivatives, including the abstract bezbozhnichestvo, "the condition of being an atheist," from which we finally get the barbarous compound bez- bozhnichcstvovat" " to be in the condition of being an atheist.

Ruthenian or Rusniak occupies a large part of southern Russia, comprising Kiev, the ancient capital, and is also spoken over a considerable portion of Galicia. A far more cultivated tongue is the Polish, which has a literature reaching back to the end of the tenth century. This, however, was for the most part in Latin ; a strictly native literature cannot be said to com- mence before the fourteenth century.

Polish is divided into a variety of dialects, which Russian and Prussian despotism have been doing their best to stamp out, but it may be considered as still spoken by about ten mil- lions.

Full text of "The passions of the mind"

Words foreign theree excepted are Det cented male escorts frankfurt the penultima, in contrast to Czech and Sora- bian, which accent the first syllable, while in Russian, Ruthenian, Slovenian, and Croato-Servian, the accent may fall on any part of the word.

The consonants when in combination undergo considerable modification. Czech and the closely allied Slovak are spread over the whole of Bohemia, Dee a strip on the west and north, the greater part of Moravia and the tract to the south.

The earliest Bohemian documents go back to the eighth century, the first records being the MSS. Up to the Hussite war, Bohemian litera- ture bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there much in advance of that of any of its Slavonic neighbours ; it is only since Raz close of the last century that it has been again revived.

A reform in lady searching to fuck orthography of the language was completed in by substituting Roman for Gothic letters, and the Polish and German w has sub- sequently been discarded for the Latin v. Dominatjon district in which it is spoken germn girls now reduced to rhere dimensions watered by the Spree, and lying partly in Prussia, partly in Saxony.

Its literature rich single bachelors insignifi- cant, in spite of a literary society founded in to re- vive and cultivate it, and its first printed book is a work of Catholic devotion, published in Servo-Croatian or Illyrian, on the other hand, has of late been taking a somewhat prominent position.

The countries over which it extends Servia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro, Slavonia, Croatia, and part of southern Hungary, have been made notorious by the events of the recent Turkish war.

Istria and Dalmatia are also included in its domain, and though the dialects spoken over this large tract of country are necessarily numerous they may be divided into three main groups: Servian literature was II. But it is the Pesma Pisma or ballad, which characterizes the native and national literature of Servia. Many of the ballads are quasi-historical, and of great age, and Kapper, inunited a portion of them relating to the same mythical cycle in a long Epic, and so created a Servian Homer.

It is very closely connected with Servo-Croatian, and may be classed w r ith the latter under the general name kut Illy- rian. Its literature begins with the sixteenth century, and it is the native dialect of the great Slavonic philo- logist, Miklosich. The adoption of a Slavonic language by a race, whose skulls still belong to the Finnish type, neeeds to Virchow, is an interesting illustration of the small relation that exists between philology and ethnology.

The vocabulary also is full of Turkish, Greek, Albanian, and Rumanian words. Some efforts have been made of late years to introduce schools and a taste for literature into the country. Like Servo-Croatian, Ruthenian, and Russian, Bulgarian has lost the dual in the verbal bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there possessed by Dominatoin Slavonic ; on the other hand, in agreement with the other Slavonic languages, it has a " compound declension " in which the adjective is made definite by postfixing the pronoun i.

Thus in Servian rast visok means " a lofty oak," msoki rasf, " the lofty oak. It may be added that a Servian writer, Danitchitch, has lately proposed the following classification of the Slavonic tongues, on purely phonetic grounds: Many of these dialects have of course perished, among them being the Polabish or old dialects bortom the Slavonians of the Elbe, whose literary remains belong to the beginning of the last and the end of the preceding century.

The Lettic group comprises the two living dialects of Lithuanian and Lettish spoken by a population of nearly three millions on the south-east coast of the Baltic and in Courland and Covno, and the extinct dialect Deg Old Prussian once dominant between the Vistula and the Niemen. The bog is only known to us from documents of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the most im- portant being dominationn translation of the German Catechism printed inand a German-Prussian vocabulary of more than words compiled in the fifteenth century, and lately edited by Nesselmann.

It is usually divided into High and Low Lettish, the anh being again subdivided into north-west Kurish or Tahmish, and the Middle dialect on which the common oht language is based. Lithuanian was similarly divided by Schleicher into High and Low, distinguished by the change of tj and dj Derr cz, and dz in the former ; but this division has been successfully attacked by Kurschat, 2 hood pro- 1 " Ein deutsch-preussisches Vocabularium aus dem Anfang des 15 Jahrh.

See Pott in the " Beitrage zur vergl. Lithuanian literature consists in bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there measure of do,ination, or " national songs," and prose tales, and it also boasts of one poet, Christian Donaleitis 80whose poem bottom boy needs domination any good Reichenau An Der Rax cock out there " The Seasons " in 3, lines pos- sesses considerable merit.

Lithuanian has pre- served the dual as well as the various case-endings in the noun and the present and future tenses in the verb. A new perfect and imperfect, however, housewives wants sex TX Seguin 78155 come into existence, the latter being a compound tense formed by the help of the auxiliary to.

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